What is Intelligence? How does intelligence develop in children?
What is intelligence? Intelligence is the potential mind power of man. In the nineteenth century W. Wundt’s laboratory carried out important experimental psychology researches in the era. For the first time in America, Cattel added the concept of kavram mental testing zih and ”mental test” to the terminology of psychology.
What is Intelligence? What are culture-dependent intelligence tests?
Alfred Binet and David Wechsler
have developed the first intelligence test for Binet school children. Binet defined intelligence as “good reasoning, good judgment and
self-criticism Bin. Binet’s concept of intelligence includes the following features:
- To give direction to thought and to continue
- To adapt the thought to realize its purpose
Binet and Simon (1905) developed the intelligence test that measures the intelligence levels of children with school failures. It is a test currently in use. The intelligence test developed by Wechsler is the most comprehensive and valid intelligence measurement tool. Wechsler defines intelligence as: çevres intelligence is the capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think sensibly and to be effective with his environment. We
The Wechsler test differs according to Binet’s test in two ways:
- Provides more data and questions are prepared in 2 different types, verbal and performance
- Prepared for adults first
The WISC child form, which consists of 12 sub-tests, is the most widely used test in our country. It consists of 6 verbal and 6 performance tests. The child’s ability to understand and use language is measured. It is not based on the power of expression, it is based on certain procedures. A single intelligence score is obtained by evaluating the verbal and performance points together.
What is Intelligence? What are the culture-free intelligence tests?
They aim to measure the potential of intelligence independently of the individual’s knowledge and education. Verbal content was reduced in this group of tests. However, even in questions such as triangles and circles, culture has been shown to be effective.
Cattell (1930) admitted that intelligence was composed of a single factor and claimed that the current tests, which he described as yetenek fluent general ability, bir did not measure current intelligence. Cattell compiles the test material from non-knowledgeable, non-knowledgeable questions.
Raven (1938) created the Progressive Matrices test with geometric shapes prepared on the basis of certain rules. Each section is left incomplete. It is a test that is getting harder and consists of 5 parts. It does not carry verbal content, but its educational status is reflected in the test score.
Properties of Psychometric Tests
Reliability means that the scores obtained by the measurement tool are consistent. The reliability coefficient of the Stanford-Binet and WISC tests is approximately as high as 0.9. Validity refers to the functionality of the measuring instrument. A valid intelligence test is expected to show a high and positive relationship with another intelligence test applied to the same person or group. The validity coefficient between the WISC and Raven Progressive Matrices test, which are highly correlated with each other, is around 0.83.
What is Intelligence ? Principles of Calculating the Points of Intelligence
The calculated point value is related to the age level at which the test is applied. When the baby is concerned, the development section is defined. When the age of the children grows, it is evaluated with the concept of intelligence. The first form of calculation of intelligence is expressed by the concept of mind age. The age of mind refers to the average performance of children of a certain age group in the test. It is accepted that the test is a measuring force in terms of the age of questions and questions contained in the measurement tool.
The age of the mind is divided by the age of the calendar and multiplied by 100 refers to the intelligence section. The intelligence section states that the age of mind develops faster or slower than the calendar age. Children’s performance may vary according to age. Relative intelligence performance is important among the person’s peers. As in the 1960 edition of the Stanford-Binet test for the first time, the intelligence section is evaluated on the basis of a standard score.
What is Intelligence ? Can the Intelligence Division Change?
The smallest age range of the Stanford-Binet test starts at age 2, and the age range of the WISC test starts at the age of 3 years. The fact that the performance of the individuals in the intelligence tests is hereditary or environmental source is examined in two important studies. Subjects were followed from infancy to 18 years of age.
Honzig et al. (1948), 222 children have followed and have determined that the intelligence section is not fixed. The ZB scores of 15% were 15 points and above.
Kagan et al. (1958), children between 6 to 6 years of increasing and decreasing ZB score as 2 groups have done research. ZB scores increased by 17 points and decreased by 5 points on average. Children in the group with decreasing ZB scores are more dependent on their families. Children in the group with increased ZB score are more likely to be more successful and have more aggressive reactions in projective tests. The mental abilities of children who have no emotional dependence and interact more with the environment are developing over time.
What is Intelligence ? What is the course of mental development?
There is a linear increase between age of mind and calendar age. Mental development develops rapidly in the first years of life and continues until 18-20 years of age. After the age of 25, a very mild but steady decline begins. Wechsler-Bellevne Test data show that this age-related mental development curve is observed. The mental potential between the ages of 25-45 shows a graphically stable course. The ability of the person to transfer what they have learned provides an advantage in the verbal part of the WAIS test. From the age of 45, a very slow but steady decline in the potential of the mind under normal conditions is predicted.
Thurstone (1955) developed the Basic Ability Test results according to the age factor. According to the test results evaluated graphically, 7 basic abilities (perception speed, space relations, reasoning, number ability, instant memory, oral comprehension, word fluency) are differentiated in the first years of life, but differ with age. The separation and development of basic skills in adolescence is at the top. In the later years of life, this divergence slows down again.
What is Intelligence? What are the Factors Affecting Intelligence Test Success?
The validity, reliability and standardization principles should be implemented as the usability characteristics of intelligence tests. The determination of the test questions and the principle of sameness as well as the behavior and attitudes of the tester must comply with the standard.
Experience allows the test to be applied without interruption with the necessary scientific approach. The test practitioner must report with the person to be tested. Raport is the status of providing the necessary attention and cooperation to the tester. It is more difficult to provide motivation in preschool children or in the last childhood period. Primary school 1-2-3. The game approach is the most effective tool while motivating the class children.
Based on the total score of intelligence tests, there is no difference in score between boys and girls. When the subtests are evaluated separately, boys are more successful in mechanical skills and relationship and number subtests. Girls are more successful in verbal sub-tests, faster hand skills and sub-tests that require attention.
What is the Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Intelligence?
The değer Value of the Child ıs study conducted by Kağıtçıbaşı (1981) investigated the individual’s perspective, values and attitudes from socio-economic conditions. The increase in the economic conditions of the family affects the value given to the children. In rural areas, the boy is ahead of the girl. In the measurement conducted with the Stanford-Binet test, the mean intelligence level of children with parental occupations was found to be 21 points higher. (Scarr, 1976)
Dennis (1960) reported motor dysfunction and developmental disorganization in children who did not receive enough attention in childbearing dormitories. She argued that a lack of learning had a negative impact on learning to sit and learn to walk. Goldfarb (1949) defined a linear relationship between the low intelligence test scores and the duration of survival in the orphanages.
Heredity and Environment
The environment may facilitate the emergence of the potential for genes, but cannot improve its limits. The correlation coefficient of close wit was 0.79 in the same twins grown in separate environmental conditions and 0.87 in twins grown in the same environment. Sprinthall (1981) saw the ZB coefficient as 0.55 when it was grown in the same environment, and close to zero when grown in separate environments. Bloom (1964) evaluated the richness of alertness and verbal reasoning, and encouraged the child in active participation in problem solving as important in intelligence development.
What is Intelligence? Children by Intelligence
Children with mental retardation
These children are less advantageous than their peers in terms of mental function and lack the appropriate learning skills for their age. People who take intelligence from the intelligence test and who cannot adapt to daily life are included in this group. Intelligence retardation occurs due to an organic cause or chromosomal anomalies.
Children with cleverness of 120 and above, or superior ability in anything. Superiority is a feature inherited in the forward-end position of intelligence, as well as a high-level display of certain abilities. Terman (1925) examined 1,500 children with an average of 150 intelligence. The academic achievements of these children were evaluated as 10-30 times higher than in the normal population.
The relationship between intelligence and creativity has not been clarified yet. It is not correct to accept mental functions such as perception, attention, problem solving, analysis and synthesis. As divergent thinking, Guilford described the ability to create a new, different, original response to a problem.
The positive self concept in the child will ensure that it is valuable and important. Thus, he will be able to produce more ideas.