What are the stages of speech development?
It is important to follow the first word of children in terms of speech development stages . The child pronounces the first conscious word at the age of 1 and learns about 270 new words in a year. Children aged 4-5 reach grammatical structures of adults.
Theories of Language Development
- Behavioral Approach
Around the 12th month, the child’s laryngeal sounds begin to resemble the sounds of the native tongue. The syllables close to the words in the mother tongue are reinforced by the parental and the close environment. Imitation is effective in the arrangement of words or grammar learning. Due to the condition of the conditioning of certain words, the words have the same ullan repetition advantage Belirli.
According to this approach, developed by the researcher Skinner and considered the simplification as the key concepts in language learning, it learns the native language with these inherent features in human nature. But Skinner did not explain the words children use but which adults do not use.
- Psycholinguistic Speech Developmental Stages Approach
Noam Chomsky emphasized that human memory is in a structure suitable for language development and has a congenital hereditary grammar structure. In this way, children learn their native language very quickly.
The surface structure of any language, the grammatical elements of the sentences in that language, their relation and their phonetics are symbolized to create characteristics. Mc Neil (1970) and Lenneberg (1967) were closely interested in Chomsky’s views. Lenneberg emphasized that language development is an advanced logic system specific to humans.
- Cognitive Approach
According to J. Piaget and L. Bloom, language development in terms of speech development stages is related to the mental development of the child such as perception, understanding, attention, imagination, memory, reasoning. Learn the language as a means of coding the information they have previously gained in children. Before the children talk, they learn the concepts and express the meanings before knowing the grammatical structures. This approach does not explain how children learn their mother tongue.
- Pragmatic Approach
According to Bruner (1974) and Bates (1976), language development and mother tongue learning in terms of the stages of speech development take place in the process of social development. Learn language with the effort of explaining children’s requests in social media. The same social environment allows the child to understand the concepts. Language is acquired when the child needs to talk. Adults have the role of accelerating the language learning process. The child is an active participant in this learning process and the language learning process is a function of social communication.
Communication in other life forms in terms of speech development stages
Gardner and Gardner, who studied the language potentials of the chimpanzees, taught a chimpanzee the sign language. This chimpanzee named Washoe learned to use hundreds of signs. The researcher named Premak taught Sarah the chimpanzee a variety of colors and this chimpanzee not only understood the written aspects, but also produced new sentences with symbols. Patterson and his friends taught more than 600 sign language symbols to the chimpanzee named Koko, and Koko used 400 of them.
In spite of all these and many other studies, it is the only living person who has the richness of being able to express his feelings with small differences.
Speech Development Stages include:
According to the Chomsky theory, babies are born with the ability to recognize adults’ languages at birth and to separate human speech from other voices. Wolfe (1966) found that the human voice calmed babies more. The steps taken by children in order to understand and express what is said from birth are as follows:
- Vocalization Period (0-2 months): The first months are a vocal period composed of vowels. The baby produces all the vowels itself. Infant vocal cords and vocal sounds are produced to provide the development of the structure of the throat.
- Chirping Period (4-5 months): Baby’s sounds begin to resemble the sounds of the people around it. The source of these sounds is the sounds produced by the child’s nature, independent of learning. A higher frequency is observed in vowel sounds produced up to 1 year old. Phonemes, which are the smallest sound units in a language, develop in the first year by the children in the fastest way. Mc Carthy (1959) stated that the pre-voices were a stage of language development. Carroll (1960), sound of the chirping period sounds, such as the actual language can not be associated with said. While the child produces the first meaningful word about 1 year old, his active vocabulary is always richer than the words he expresses. The word capacity that the child understands is called passive vocabulary.
Developmental stages of speech after 1 year
- Single Word Period (12-18 months): In this period, the child began to use a word in a meaningful way. The period of language development has started. When you choose words for specific objects, they use names first and then verbs. The only word is that it contains an aggregated meaning.
- Two Words Period (18-24 months): Within the grammar structure of the im rotary shaft yaklaşık, the child began to use approximately 270 words as verbal communication tools. The child first uses the name, then the verb, adjective, adverbs; most recently I use pronouns (me, me, me, me etc). Brown (1973) found that children tend to skip the attachment and conjunctions used by adults in the process of language development. The words that represent the meaning the child wants to tell are content words. Expression and expression of words and attachments that do not represent man by the child is called terk telegraphy style ve. The grammatical structure of the child is in the form of sentence formation on the same axis. Martin Brame is the researcher who first realized the ilk rotary shaft Martin structure. Children use some of the words they use very often.
- Three and more vocabulary sentences: The child, who is 2-3 years old, has learned the basic structures of his native language and his vocabulary is developed rapidly. The child with a vocabulary of about 400 words tends to form positive sentences. Vocabulary at 3-4 years of age reaches 1000 words. He prefers to use in his sentences a large and future time. At this age, the child’s self-centered feature continues until the age of 7.
What are the difficulties during speech development stages?
Because of the native learning stages, there may be fluency in speech. The articulation problem can be reflected in the child’s speech and mas temporary problems uğ may be seen in the conversation.
Stuttering is an involuntary speech fluency defect that overestimates the emotional dimension, and there are voices or silent repetitions and extensions in the voice of words. Speech disorder is related to the movements of organs related to sound. A person’s excitement, tension, such as accompanying the situation, such as fear, shame, such as boredom occurs.
Mild stuttering is a group with very few speech disorders and emotional problems. Intoxicating stutterers solve the problem of speech fluency by using synonymous words in response to the difficult words. In the heavy stuttering group, convulsions and rhythmic body movements accompany stuttering. The age of onset in this group is early.
Stuttering and Intelligence
Stuttering deficiency is not a defining variable in stuttering, and the socio-cultural factors in which the child is involved are determinant in the transformation of fluency problems into stuttering.
Stuttering and Sex
Male to male ratio is 1/3. Although the rate of recovery with age progression increased in both groups, the girls’ speech fluency tended to improve further. Various stress factors created on boys and increased environmental expectation in boys prepare the ground for stuttering.
How is stuttering?
Emotional shocks are important in the formation of stuttering. It was observed that the parents of stuttering children were more oppressive and prescriptive. Stuttering is known to be a speech disorder as a result of internal conflicts and concerns.
Personality Structure and Stuttering
It is not possible to say that the stuttering is more tense or irritable than the other fluent speakers except for stuttering. Studies in personality size reveal the relationship between neurotic personality and stuttering.