What are the stages of child development? Development by Month
Child education begins in mother’s womb. When it is decided to have children, both of them should be willing and not to be problematic. There is a close relationship between intelligence and nutrition. In pre-school period, the personality structure and intelligence level of the child is determined to a great extent.
In terms of the stages of child development, the period when the human brain grows most is 0-3 years old.
Another area that is as important as the child’s cognitive aspect during child development is the sociality aspect of the child. Social skills are directly related to personality. After 3 years of age, the child’s education should be continued in the family setting and in a suitable institution providing pre-school education. It is important for parents to be a model and show love to the child. The child should not be confused to love and pamper. Obtaining responsibility to the child should be a primary objective.
In terms of the stages of child development, self-confidence begins to develop by birth and continues to develop until the age of 9-10.
For this reason, the success of the child should be appreciated and rewarded. Children should be directed to social and artistic activities. It should be ensured that it does not lose hope in the face of difficulties. The child cannot make accounting for the past and cannot plan the future. Therefore, long-term promises should not be given.
Punishment and rewards should be applied to the heat of heat. Prizes and penalties must be imposed on the child’s behavior; personality and emotions should not be offended.
Stages of Child Development and Growth
Growth and development in children are divided into 5 periods:
Milk period: 0-2 years
Play period: 2-6 years
School term: 6-12 years of
Adolescence : 11-12 years of age Adolescence: 12-18 years old
Stages of child development and analysis by months:
0-1 months: There are automatic reflexes such as suction, swallowing and pooping.
1-6 months: Sleep pattern is formed.
6-12 months: Distinguishes strangers
10th month: spelling and single words begin.
12-18 months: the first meaningful words begin to tell, walks and starts to use the spoon
18-24 months: 2-word sentences begin, asks questions, tells simple songs, tells the toilet
24-36 months: 3 words short sentences, understand their own self starts, plays games of imitation
36-48 months: increases speech speed, counts up to 10, participates in group games
48-60 months: develops the concept of time, tells the story it listens, makes distinct pictures, develops friendships .
60-72 months: It is self-sufficient, has a sense of humor, is ready for school.
Child Development Stages – Nutrition and Nutrition Problems
Regular eating habits do not occur in children growing in families who do not have regular eating habits. The following recommendations should be followed for a healthy eating habit;
– Good nutrition is important in pregnancy.
– The first 6 months of the child should be fed only breast milk.
– Food and baked foods should not be preferred, ready-made foods should be avoided.
– No more food, cola and gas food should be avoided.
– No snacks should be served.
-Each group should be eaten.
– Children should not be compared with other children.
Feeding food by force leads the child to withdraw. Physical factors that cause appetite include: physical factors such as diseases, the mother’s anxious attitude, over-feeding, sister jealousy, etc.
In recent years, obesity is increasing in children. Obesity brings many physical and mental problems, for example lack of confidence. Hormonal problems are frequently observed in children with obesity problems. Factors leading to obesity include: genetic predisposition, lack of adequate breastfeeding, immobility, domestic stress, false value judgments about nutrition, etc.
To prevent obesity, the following should be considered:
Wrong eating habits should be avoided.
Drink plenty of water.
Food should not be eaten while watching television.
The child should be taken away from the computer and directed to moving activities.
Children should be directed to participate in sporting events.
Selective Treatment in Meals
The child should consume all kinds of food sources. If the child does not get milk, yogurt and cheese should be fed. Meat can be made if not eating meat. Children like fancy and eye-loving food, food can be prepared accordingly.
Stages of Child Development – Importance of Breast Milk
Breast milk is very nutritious for the child. Only the first 6 months should be given to the child. Cow’s milk is harmful to the child and is not recommended before 2 years of age. Additional foods should be given as semi-solid after 6 months.
The baby should be sucked in the first hour after birth. During the breastfeeding process, the mother should not diet and plenty of fluid. Working mothers can use milk pump. Attention should be paid to postpartum depression. Milk should be discontinued gradually during cutting. The number of meals during the day and the number is reduced. After a while, it can only be completely cut off by breastfeeding at night.
Benefits of Breastfeeding
Breast milk improves the child’s immune system. Mother’s milk is easy to digest, anemia is less common. Mother-child physically converge during breastfeeding. Mother makes eye contact with the child.
Benefits for breastfeeding mother
Feel more sense of motherhood; the mother feels more peaceful. Breastfeeding mothers lose weight more easily. The physical appearance of nursing mothers is less impaired. Breastfeeding protects the mother from cancer.
Nutrition Factors Affecting Development
Iron, iodine, zinc, B vitamins, folic acid, vitamin A, calcium, choline, magnesium, omega 3
Stages of Child Development – Picture Capability
The first lines of the child do not take place within a certain plan and order. The first line and points are generally seen around 18 months. At age 2, rounds, back and forth doodles and big and small dots appear. The purpose of the 3-year-old child is marked and controlled movements are observed. The human image is only drawn on the round head and placed in the head 2 eyes and mouth. The child from the age of 4 usually draws stick figures as a human figure. Adds arms and legs to the head and tries to complete the picture. Very rarely makes the body. Human painting is his favorite work. A 5-year-old child still continues to make a human figure. In the human figure, all organs are complete. The child pre-designs the subject of the painting. Adds details to his home picture. The paintings of the 6-year-old child show a mastery of the use of paper and the objects placed in the space are very close to the actual proportions. The shapes on the back of an object are drawn as if they were seen, meaning that many objects are transparent.
Children’s pictures are influenced by factors such as environmental conditions, cultural and personality traits and experience. Throughout the picture, the desire, longing, imagination, fear, anxiety, curiosity and the like are heard; however, it is not clear that the expression is with symbols. The child’s aim of painting is to have an impulsive desire, as well as to be appreciated and delighted.
Drawing is the process of copying the child’s internality into the objective world with symbols. Therefore, the child should not be interfered when painting. Painting is an activity that develops the child’s imagination. The artist who paints also limits his or her imagination when it is directed or constrained. The pictures describe how the child thinks and how he perceives the world. Advances in the skill of painting are at the same level as the child’s mental and dynamic development. The picture has an important place in clinical psychology as well as in child psychology. In clinical psychology, children’s pictures are used in both diagnosis and treatment process.
The following criteria should be considered when evaluating children’s pictures:
– Drawing order
– The organs of individuals
– The positions of individuals
– The area of use of paper, etc.
Parents should ensure that their children meet with painting and other arts at a very early stage. The child can meet with paper and pencil after 1 year of age. The child should be given the opportunity to comment on his paintings and the child should be encouraged.
Children and Music
Music is the food of the soul, there is a very known saying. Indeed, music makes incredible positive changes on the human soul. Music has its own language and is therefore said to have a universal dimension.
A child’s aesthetic sense of rhythm and rhythm intuition develops, and strong emotions awaken in him. Music relaxes the child, revitalizes, calms and enriches the human aspect. The child is accompanied by dancing to the music he listens to and has the opportunity to transfer the energy in the correct way.
Music For Babies
Music has a positive effect on the unborn baby. It has been observed that babies react to multiple songs or rhythmic sounds. Peter Happer and Sara Shahidullah found that a 14-week-old fetus reacted to voices from outside, listening to lullabies and calming music at 24 weeks of age. Music should be given in a certain order before the birth and after the birth, and care should be taken to connect the mother and the baby with daily activities.
Which Music, When and How to Play?
All kinds of music and rhythmic sounds can be played to babies both before and after birth. Albums with rain, wind, wave, animal sounds and bird singing can be preferred. From the fifth month of pregnancy, it is recommended to listen to music, especially when the baby is moving. Daily 10-15 minutes sessions can be played in the form of music. According to Howard Gardner, the most known advocate of the multi-intelligence approach, music is a form of intelligence in itself. Musical intelligence is the earliest and the earliest recognized intelligence.