What are the Factors Affecting Growth Stages?
Factors Affecting Development in terms of Growth Stages
The conditions in which the mother lived and the conditions created by these conditions affect the fetus, the newborn and its development.
Diseases experienced during pregnancy affect embryo development. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity can cause the mother to suffer. Virus-related diseases can lead to mental disorders such as mental retardation or heart disease.
- Chemical Drugs and Environmental Pollution
Medications used during pregnancy without consulting a doctor may cause abnormalities in the fetus or premature birth. Nicotine, the most negative chemical, causes low birth weight and preterm labor in the babies of mothers who smoke during pregnancy.
Nutrition in terms of growth stages
Poor and unbalanced nutrition during pregnancy adversely affects the fetus. Depending on adverse nutritional conditions, irreversible damage to the organ’s organ growth may occur.
Stress during pregnancy may adversely affect the palate and lip development in the fetus. After intense stressful pregnancy, babies with low weight, irritable and digestive problems are more likely to be born.
Physical Development in Prenatal Period in terms of Growth Stages
- Fertilization: Fertilized cells in the fertilized cell for 2 weeks from the merger of ovum and sperm have very rapid proliferation and changes. On the 10th day of fertilization, when the fetus is attached to the uterine wall, its size is about the size of the pin.
- Embryo: It continues from the end of H to the end of the 8th week. The body structure was partially completed and the average was 41 mm. The arms and legs are prominent, the skeletal system is visible.
- Fetus: It is the period from the beginning of the month to birth. It goes through the general growth and enrichment of systems. The nerve ends are thickened and covered with myelin. From the 7th month onwards, the physiological mechanisms provide sufficient development for adaptation to the external life.
Physical development in terms of growth stages
In the context of child psychology, the postpartum period covers the period from birth to the end of adolescence. Developmental psychology is a branch of science that examines human in biological, cognitive and social processes from birth to death.
New Born Baby (0-4 weeks)
Physically, his face is round, his head is wide and his nose is flattened. The head is larger than the other organs. Head development is very fast; The adult human is around 5-6 years old. Approximately 3250-3500 gr. baby weighing 48-53 cm. 270 bones in the birth, 350 adolescents, the advanced skeleton is 206 pieces. Weight increase gradually decreases towards the end of 2 years. 5-6 years of weight gain acceleration is seen.
Height increase is the fastest delivery between the age of 4 years. Although the increase in growth rate in girls has started earlier, at the end of the growth, men are longer and heavier. Milk teeth that appear in the 6th month leave their place on permanent teeth when they are 7 years old. Permanent teeth are completed at the age of 12-13 years. The most advanced sensory organ at birth is the ear. The sense of taste from the first day performs its function. Recognition of different odors occurs after 4 and 5 months. The touch sense functions by birth. Visual acuity is about 7-8 years old.
Factors Affecting Growth Stages
Children in a class have different height, structure and physiognomy. Those who cause these differences are heredity, environment and diseases. Characteristics inherited from the parents and inherent in the chromosomes through genes. With the potential development of the child, protein-rich, balanced nutrition is also important in terms of reaching the final length. Improper psychosocial environment may adversely affect growth.
The motor development associated with the child’s movement system is related to the maturation of the nervous system. When organic compatibility is achieved, progress and improvement in motor activities are observed. Their motor development skills develop from head to toe and from the center. For example, head and neck control takes place before sitting.
The reflexes that make up the first movements of newborn babies are short-lived. The cortex has no contribution to this reflex behavior. It causes a variety of behavior in the nervous system when there is no myelinization. McGraw (1943) reported that these reflexes were driven by lower cortex structures.
Growth Stages Reflex Development
Other reflexes observed in newborn babies other than reflexes such as crying, sucking, swallowing and breathing are:
Palmar Reflex: When the baby touches the palms, they close their palms for the first 4-6 hours.
Plantar Reflex: When the baby’s soles are stimulated with a hard object, the toes open out like a fan.
Moro Reflex: When the baby’s back is hit, his arms open out sideways; then she embraces someone on their own chest like they are hugging.
Swimming Reflex: When the newborn baby lies on the stomach, a characteristic swimming movement is observed in the body.
Step Throw Reflex: This reflex, which is destroyed at the eighth week, is the stepping of the baby under the armpit.
Tonic Neck Reflex:The series in newborn babies includes asymmetric behavior. This reflex, first evaluated by Gesell, is lost in the 20th week.
From the 13th month on, children’s behaviors become dominant. The nervous system matures and this is observed by the child’s onset of walking. It has been described that walking is a 14-stage process (Ames 1937, Veitmes 1940, Gesell, Shirley 1931 and McGraw 1941).
The baby crawls first with the help of his arms. At the next stage, the infant’s arms and foot movements are co-ordinated together, and the infant phase comes. In the first stage, with the support it receives from its arms, it moves with the knee and foot support in the second stage. Controlled movements depend on large muscle development. In the first months he raises his head from where he lies with the neck control. Around 3-4 months baby can sit 1-2 minutes with support. From 6 months onwards, support is given first and then without support.
Crawling is observed from the 7th month. 10 months, hands and knees on the way he wanted to crawl. The walking action, which first starts holding onto the objects, is observed in about 13 months. Around the 18th month the child manages to climb up the stairs. The development of small muscles involves the ability to grip the hand with hand manipulation and finger development.
At the end of small muscle development, some children prefer to use the left hand. In the community, 93% of those who prefer to use their right hand and 7% of those who prefer to use their left hand.
Gesell and Ames (1947) stated that children have a stable hand preference up to the age of 2 years. They emphasized that the preference for this preference is around 8 years of age.
In the right-handed person, the task distribution of the hemispheres is as follows:
a) Right hemisphere: using simple words, using nonverbal signs, simple mathematical operations, sensuality
b) Left hemisphere: Verbal ideas, abstract concepts, difficult mathematical operations, problem solving